Helpful Payday Advance Guidance, Guidelines

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Getting a pay day loan should be thought about a worst case. You ought to be likely to research your options on the payday loan prior to determining. Also, know there are often big charges associated with these kinds of financial loans. Here are some tips to assist you as you go along.

Conduct the necessary research. Don’t just take the initial financial institution to provide funds. Compare prices to try to have a far better bargain from an additional company. Though it may possibly use up a tad bit more time than you want, this can help you save money in the pick up system of things. It might be feasible to identify a internet site that can help you are making swift reviews.

When you get the initial payday loan, request a discount. Most payday advance office buildings give you a fee or amount discounted for first-time borrowers. In case the place you would like to obtain from will not give you a low cost, get in touch with all around. If you discover a discount somewhere else, the loan spot, you wish to visit will likely match up it to get your company.

For those who have not had the opportunity to fully pay off your payday advance, there can be aid readily available through numerous agencies. Most of them will give you totally free help in discussing lower attention monthly payments or consolidation professional services, which can definitely come in handy when you are seeking to split the credit cycle.

Before applying for any cash advance, look into the entire selection of other credit options that exist. It is actually more affordable to acquire a personal loan from the lender, credit cards firm, or from family. The fees associated with these different choices are usually much less as opposed to those of the pay day loan.

Ensure that you know how, and when you are going to pay back the loan even before you buy it. Have the bank loan repayment worked well to your price range for your upcoming shell out time periods. Then you can certainly guarantee you spend the money back again. If you fail to repay it, you will get caught spending a loan extension charge, on the top of extra attention.

Often be careful with any personal data you provide out when you make an application for payday loans. It isn’t rare for apps to request for such things as your tackle and sociable protection quantity, that make you vunerable to identity theft. This data could be used to rob your identity therefore, make certain you make use of a reliable firm.

Utilize your pay day loaning expertise being a motivator to help make much better fiscal alternatives. Once you have effectively repaid you financial loan, you may well be angry that you just invested a whole lot. This frustration could be a force for change, even so. If you start off squirreling apart some money each and every spend time, you should use that cash when an unexpected emergency arises rather than visiting a paycheck financial institution.

Should you be getting concerns paying back your cash advance, allow the financial institution know at the earliest opportunity. These creditors are widely used to this example. They may work together with you to definitely build a continuing repayment option. If, as an alternative, you forget about the loan provider, you will find on your own in series before you know it.

Beware of intelligent roll-over techniques on the cash advance. Some creditors have systems dedicated to position that recharge the loan quickly and subtract the charges from your checking account. The first contract of your bank loan may possibly permit this. This may result in charges to snowball to the level the place you in no way get caught up spending it back. Know what you will be getting into.

Should you ever request a supervisor at the paycheck financial institution, make sure they are really a supervisor. Payday creditors, like other businesses, occasionally simply have another colleague can come above to be a refreshing face to smooth spanning a condition. Request when they have the energy to write in the initial staff. If not, they can be both not really a manager, or supervisors there do not have much potential. Straight requesting a administrator, is generally a much better strategy.

For those who have any beneficial products, you may want to take into account using these with you to definitely a payday loan service provider. Occasionally, payday advance companies will let you protected a pay day loan in opposition to an important piece, for instance a component of fine expensive jewelry. A guaranteed pay day loan will normally use a reduced interest, than an unsecured payday advance.

Will not let the chance of receiving funds rapidly stop you from creating a good option. Too many people method pay day loans as being an straightforward answer to cover their charges and land in debts. You should consider your decision very carefully and ensure you really can afford to pay back the loan.

Only obtain the amount of money that you just really need. For instance, if you are struggling to pay off your debts, then this money is certainly needed. However, you ought to never ever acquire money for splurging reasons, like eating out. The high rates of interest you will need to shell out in the foreseeable future, is definitely not well worth experiencing money now.

With all the details you might have read through on this page, your self-confidence in what you need to do needs to be substantial. Create a great decision that one could be happy with. Finest desires when making noise fiscal selections for your future. You should have no financial problems any further. Remember that there are actually steps you can take to help on your own away from monetary problems.

Awesome Payday Loan Recommendations That Really Function

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You can use a cash advance to have cash rather quickly. If you must get yourself a pay day loan in desperate situations, read this very first. Having said that, it’s finest to be aware what you’re getting into initial, so continue reading.

There are lots of scenarios wherein a payday loan is the only solution. It is advisable to stay away from this sort of borrowing whenever possible. If you can obtain the cash from someone you care about for you to do this prior to deciding on going with a cash loan loan.

Paycheck financial institution use a number of methods to have all around customer safety laws. As opposed to fascination, pay day loan providers fee costs. This will raise interest levels up to ten times over the interest levels of conventional loans.

If you need to work with a pay day loan, nevertheless, you could not believe it is in your geographic area, consider to see the nearest express line. You will get blessed and learn that this state adjacent to you has legalized online payday loans. For that reason, it is possible to obtain a connection personal loan right here. Considering that the actual activity of money is taken care of electronically, this method typically requires just a one vacation.

Before you get a payday loan, make sure you comprehend every one of the charges that come along with a single. Most people are extremely surprised by the total amount these organizations charge them for getting the loan. In no way be reluctant to ask about payday advance interest rates.

If you would like obtain an economical payday advance, make an effort to find the one that is available completely from a loan provider. You’ll pay more income in the event you take care of an indirect loan provider due to the fact they’ll have a cut.

Getting a payday loan is extremely effortless. Make sure you check out the loan company with your most-the latest shell out stubs, and you also must be able to find some good dollars rapidly. If you do not have your recent spend stubs, you will find it really is much harder to find the personal loan and might be declined.

The most important idea when getting a payday loan is to only acquire what you can repay. Interest levels with online payday loans are nuts substantial, and if you are taking out greater than you are able to re-pay out through the expected date, you will certainly be having to pay quite a lot in fascination charges.

Before signing up for a mortgage loan, shop around. Even though you consider they will help you, don’t agree to their personal loan if you do not fully understand the terms. Recognize anything you can about the reputation of the company so that you can protect against the need to shell out more than expected.

Ask exactly what the interest rate of the cash advance is going to be. This is very important, as this is the total amount you should spend as well as the amount of cash you might be credit. You could possibly even want to research prices and obtain the best monthly interest you are able to. The lower amount you see, the less your full pay back will probably be.

Read through every one of the fine print on whatever you read through, signal, or may possibly sign in a pay day loan company. Ask questions about anything you may not comprehend. Measure the confidence from the solutions provided by the staff. Some basically glance at the motions all day, and were qualified by someone performing exactly the same. They could not know all the small print their selves. Never hesitate to call their toll-cost-free customer support quantity, from inside the shop in order to connect to someone with solutions.

Often affiliates will attempt to send you to definitely loan providers, so take care of which. They might be employed in the United states, although which represents loan providers that function in other countries around the world. You might get into something that you will pay much more than what you believed you had been paying.

Never depend upon pay day loans constantly if you need help purchasing charges and immediate expenses, but remember that they can be a fantastic convenience. As long as you will not utilize them regularly, you are able to use pay day loans if you are in a small spot. Keep in mind these pointers and use these personal loans in your favor!

Choosing the Diet Pills that Can Provide you Impressive Effects

Over-the-Counter Diet Pills – Are They Really Efficient and Safe to Use?

If you are one of the numerous people who are wanting to lose fat, well surely, you are bombarded with a great number of choices for example http://theprovidentwoman.com site. With that in mind, individuals find it hard which product to select. Well, you could always ask the help of a medical expert.

It is true that the ideal diet and regular exercise is the very best combination. As such, if you wish to have faster results, then phentermine 37.5 mg diet pills frim http://www.retetebune.com are the answer. Once you utilize an effective diet supplement, rest assured that you could have the perfect body you ever desire of without spending a lot of exhausting hours on heavy workout plan. Keep in mind that you shouldn’t just drop your active and healthy life-style realizing that a health supplement works. Keep in mind that such supplements act only as a support which aids in your weight reduction quest.

Unquestionably, the market offers various kinds of diet pills. With all the offers accessible, it is anticipated to have a difficult time selecting the right one. You might be thinking if all of these pills are secure to take. Fortunately, OTC diet pills can be trusted. If you are planning to purchase OTC weight loss supplements, then you will not regret it. These are provided in different cost range as well as different packages. Nevertheless, you can make use of the world wide web and make your own search to come across the right one for you.

As mentioned earlier, seeking the doctor’s assistance is recommended. Before finally settling for one, seek advice from your doctor for you to be assured that you are really using the one that is secure and efficient to utilize. Details like the ingredients utilized in the diet pills, potential side effects, and mechanism of action will be offered to you by your doctor. Sure enough, your medical professional can suggest the ideal one worthy for you to try and purchase over the counter.

To select the best diet pills around, you have to pick properly as well. Remember that it is better to be safe than sorry. Therefore it is essential to make rash decisions. Make sure that you select the best diet pill which can kick those fats out for good. In the end, you’ll certainly embrace your fit and slimmer physique.

 

Is Added Education Truly Worth The Price?

Business people get the chance to invest in added education for their staff members, however they may wonder if this really is worth the price and also the time frame to take advantage of it. Of course, they may be required to put aside production time to be able to educate the workers, which might end up costing them a little more than the expense of the instruction program. Nonetheless, research has revealed that added decoupled molding training for employees is tremendously effective and also will certainly let the organization to get back just about any cash expended rapidly.

Through scientific molding training, workers are going to get quite a few advantages. They will be a lot more familiar with the duties in their particular position and also other positions, enabling them to work very closely along with the additional staff members to be able to carry out a project. They’re going to in addition feel more cherished whenever the company takes the time in order to provide them additional instruction, which raises their commitment to the business. Whenever they’ll obtain the extra instruction, they’re going to additionally receive additional safety instructions, that may assist them to remain safe while at work.

Together with the staff benefits, the business is going to obtain additional productivity via a variety of means. The employees may work together better, meaning they can problem solve a lot easier and also complete projects more rapidly. They’re going to in addition be able to solve minor difficulties, meaning the organization does not need to close down and lose time waiting for fixes whenever something goes completely wrong. They’re going to additionally realize precisely what to complete to be able to reduce waste,which may save the company time and money. They will learn everything they need in the injection molding training, which enables them to accomplish their own job far better and that helps the organization do much better in the end.

Quite a few businesses may benefit from the additional training of their particular workers. Any kind of organization that desires to take advantage of these types of benefits could consider the scientific molding seminars right now to be able to discover what is available and what they will need to have for their own workers. A representative can answer any questions they could have and assist them to select the correct training program for their employees. Make contact with them right now to discover more with regards to the courses and also just what they’re able to provide you and also your employees.

Get Pay Day Loan Inquiries Addressed On this page

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Are you in the financial bind? Sometimes you may feel like you will need a very little money to spend your monthly bills? Properly, look at the items in this post and see what you can find out then you can definitely take into account getting a cash advance. There are several ideas that follow to help you determine if payday loans are the proper selection to suit your needs, so make sure you keep reading.

When thinking about a pay day loan, beware of the extremely high rates of interest. In some cases the interest could be as great as 200 percentage. Due to the way they construction their financial loans, loan providers who offer you payday cash loans have was able to exempt them selves from the usury regulations that may usually prohibit this sort of curiosity.

It is actually typical for paycheck lenders to demand that you may have your own personal banking account. This is because creditors most often require that you approve straight settlement through your banking account the day the loan arrives. The repayment for you personally cash advance is going to be immediately debited through your banking account on the decided date.

To prevent too much service fees, check around prior to taking out a pay day loan. There could be a number of enterprises in your town that provide pay day loans, and a few of those organizations may possibly supply greater rates of interest than the others. By checking out around, you could possibly spend less when it is time to repay the money.

Should you should obtain a pay day loan, available a fresh checking account with a financial institution you don’t normally use. Question the bank for temporary investigations, and make use of this account to get your payday loan. When your loan will come expected, down payment the amount, you must pay back the borrowed funds into the new checking account. This safeguards your regular earnings if you happen to can’t spend the money for financial loan rear promptly.

In the event you realize that getting a pay day loan was actually a error for you, learn from it. You might be upset after you pay it back, when you see that the personal loan set you back potentially twice the quantity you borrowed right after spending charges and attention. You can utilize these emotions to inspire yourself to start an urgent situation bank account, and acquire from oneself the next occasion!

A number of pay day loan providers are rated with the Far better Enterprise Bureau. You can examine BBB’s internet site before you choose any loan company. If you find issues, you really should take your organization someplace else.

Individuals hunting to get a pay day loan will be smart to leverage the competing market that exists involving loan providers. There are plenty of various loan companies around that a few will try to provide greater deals so that you can have more enterprise. Make an effort to seek these delivers out.

Make sure that you discover all the other loan options prior to picking a payday advance. Talk with your bank or nearby lending institution, as well as your friends and relations. The expense of receiving a cash advance is high, if you can prevent it, it is recommended to do it.

Take into account that you may have specific legal rights when you use a payday loan service. If you think that you may have been taken care of unfairly by the loan company in any way, you can document a problem together with your express organization. This is in order to pressure these people to abide by any rules, or circumstances they neglect to meet. Always go through your contract carefully. So you are aware what their duties are, together with your personal.

Never take out financing for further dollars than you may pretty pay back together with your income. Some loan companies attempt to lure you in to a financial debt trap by providing more income than you actually will need. This means more cash for these people ultimately.

When you are applying for pay day loans, understand that you should spend huge rates whenever the loan expression expires. Try all other possibilities prior to taking out one of these simple personal loans, as common rates cover anything from 300-1000Per cent. Although a cash advance can still make sense to suit your needs, be sure to element this in.

Ensure it is possible to attain a person on the payday loan business you wish to choose. Most companies on this kind are sprouting up on the internet, so it may look how the one you are looking at is a great a single. Even so, if you fail to attain a person quickly, that might be a red flag and a indication something is incorrect with the company.

While you have seen, payday loans can provide you with ready entry to cash while not having to leap by way of plenty of hoops. Nonetheless, before considering a cash advance, discover the maximum amount of info that you can regarding the relation to the credit. Retain the assistance provided on this page at heart prior to signing a binding agreement to help you prosper, not slip additional in to a spiral of personal debt.

Awesome Payday Advance Ideas That Basically Job

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Mishaps frequently include unforeseen monthly bills you may have no way to pay for. Your pay out may be limited to pay the cost, meaning you’ll need some form of credit. Pay day loans can occasionally be a tremendous help for these types of situations. Please read on for useful payday advance suggestions.

The conventional time to pay back a pay day loan is two weeks. When you can’t shell out it again inside of this time, you won’t necessarily enter into go into default position. It really is frequent for loan companies to offer the capacity to roll lending options over in order that output deadlines are prolonged, but charges continue to collect.

Through taking out a cash advance, make sure that you are able to afford to spend it again inside 1 to 2 months. Payday cash loans should be used only in emergency situations, once you truly have zero other alternatives. When you sign up for a payday advance, and are not able to spend it again right away, 2 things occur. Very first, you must pay a payment to hold re-increasing the loan before you can pay it off. Secondly, you continue obtaining incurred increasingly more attention.

Look at online shopping for a pay day loan, if you need to take one particular out. There are various sites that supply them. If you need a single, you will be presently limited on dollars, why then spend fuel driving a vehicle about trying to find the one that is open up? You have the option for performing it all out of your desk.

If you have any beneficial things, you might like to consider getting these with you to a payday advance company. Sometimes, payday advance suppliers allows you to secure a pay day loan against an important piece, say for example a piece of okay expensive jewelry. A protected pay day loan will often possess a reduced interest rate, than an unprotected pay day loan.

It appears as though pay day creditors are sprouting up almost everywhere. This kind of quick-phrase bank loan has behaved like a lifeline for an incredible number of fighting individuals. This can be a short-expression loan. Because these lending options are usually short-run in nature, they come with really high rates of interest. Nonetheless, all those in an emergency could need them.

Take into account just how much you truthfully have to have the money you are contemplating credit. Should it be an issue that could hold out till you have the cash to acquire, put it off of. You will probably discover that online payday loans are certainly not an affordable option to get a big Television set for the basketball video game. Restrict your credit through these creditors to unexpected emergency circumstances.

If you need to repay the amount you need to pay on the payday advance but don’t have enough cash to accomplish this, try to have an extension. Some firms can extend your expected date by a couple of days. You need to understand which you might must pay some service fees should this be the truth.

The expression of many paydays personal loans is approximately two weeks, so be sure that you can easily pay off the financing in this time period. Failing to pay back the loan may lead to expensive costs, and fees and penalties. If you feel that you will discover a probability which you won’t have the ability to pay it back again, it is best not to take out the payday loan.

For those who have any valuable products, you may want to consider consuming all of them with you to a payday loan company. Occasionally, pay day loan providers enables you to protect a cash advance against an invaluable product, such as a piece of fine jewelry. A attached payday loan will normally have got a reduced interest rate, than an unguaranteed cash advance.

Usually study every one of the conditions and terms involved in a payday advance. Recognize each point of interest rate, what each and every possible fee is and the way a lot each one is. You desire an unexpected emergency connection bank loan to help you get out of your recent scenarios back to in your toes, but it is easier for these scenarios to snowball more than several paychecks.

Is definitely the loan provider you are interested in registered? The regulations about payday financing fluctuate by state. The lender has to be able to be involved in financing for the reason that express.

In order to get a cash advance, the best choice is to use from properly reliable and popular loan providers and sites. These internet websites have constructed an excellent status, and you won’t place yourself at risk of offering sensitive information to your rip-off or under a good financial institution.

Now you have an improved notion of what you could anticipate from a pay day loan. Think about it carefully and attempt to approach it from your quiet perspective. Should you choose that a payday loan is for you, use the tips on this page to assist you to browse through the process easily.

Athens – What To See And How To See It

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There are so many aspects of current civilization that were birthed in ancient Athens. Among these are theatre, philosophy, democracy, classical art and even the Olympic games. Athens is located on the southern coast of Greece and has existed for over 7,000 years providing a rich culture expressed in a diverse setting. The term diverse fits as you will find ancient relics and sites in some of the same areas where there are trendy boutiques and sidewalk cafes all mixed in together. This mixture of the very old and the new create a very unique experience provided nowhere in the world like it is provided in the ancient city of Athens. You will need to be sure your passport is up to day so if you need to add passport pages, be sure to go online and access a passport site to help you with this so you can be on you way.

World travel requires a passport but computers have simplified all passport needs. Even if you have to get an emergency passport, an online passport is available to help you. No one plans to have their travel documents lost or stolen but if this happens, help is as close as the nearest computer.

Athens is a city that contains many sites that make history come alive so this is certainly the ideal place for lovers of history to visit. High on top of the Acropolis you will find the Parthenon. This famous sight has earned the honor of being named as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Investigating these ruins takes you back to sights names in Greek Mythology related to gods and goddesses, the titans and many other mythological characters. Admission to this site also opens the Theatre of Dionysus, the Roman Agora and the Temple of Olympian Zeus to the traveler.

Being the birthplace of the performing arts, it is no wonder that the arts and culture are very important to the Athenians. While the National Gallery is certainly large and well known, many smaller art galleries populate the city. Athens is also host to approximately 148 theatres so if you are in the mood for a show, the difficult part will be which performance to see. Among the theatres is the famous Herodes Atticus Theatre.

Using a bike or even walking around this city is a wonderful way to see the sights. Green space is always welcome when you travel to big cities and the National Garden of Athens provides an exceptional treat. Within it can be found a small zoo, ponds with ducks, colorful flowers and beautiful landscape with no shortage of a shady tree to relax under and consider the sights of the day.

For those who would like to shop till your drop, your experience will be a little different in Athens. Rather than large malls and strip centers, you will find street vendors selling custom crafts rather than name brand items. Some of the most visited markets are found on Plaka, Kolonaki and Ermou Street. You will find endless selections of shoes, purses and jewelry if you visit here and the quality will certainly not disappoint you.

Authentic cuisine is always interesting in a foreign city and Athens is no exception to this rule. Known for their souvlaki, which is comprised of grilled meat, veggies and a special yogurt sauce, this Athenian staple is considered a treat by all who try it.

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Athens – Church of Agioi Theodoroi

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Crossing Odos Dragatsaniou, in the end stands the attractive medieval church of Agioi Theodoroi (St. Theodore), built on the site of a church founded in the ninth century, but in its present form dating from between 1050 and 1075. This small cruciform church with its high narrow dome, multiple roofs that lend it an air of rhythmic grace, narrow mullioned windows and decorated central door surmounted by arches, is a precious gem of eleventh century Byzantine architecture.

The earliest form of Byzantine churches was that of the basilica, a long rectangle divided by two or four ranges of columns into three or five naves. Later, during the 11th and 12th centuries, the plan changed to that of a Greek cross within a square, dominated by a dome constructed in brick and often combined with one or more subsidiary domes. The exterior walls consist of square-cut stone with thin brick surrounds and are enriched by bands of decoration, carving and the use of color. Few of these churches were large. Apart from St. Theodore, typical examples are the churches of Kapnikarea and St. Eleutherios.

The glory of the Byzantine church lies not so much in the architecture as to the ethereal beauty of its mosaics or frescoes. From the center of the principal dome Christ looks down upon the faithful and below Him are the Apostles. The Virgin appears in the half dome, while around the sanctuary are symbolic figures and emblems connected with the Eucharist. On the West wall opposite the chancel is the Last Judgement. Colored marble and similar material in the lower walls add to the resplendent beauty of the interior.

The liturgy of the Greek Orthodox Church requires separation of the altar from the laity. The altar is placed in a chancel screened from the congregation by the iconostasis, i.e. the screen dividing the sanctuary from the church proper. This is adorned with pictures of Christ, the Virgin, and Saints, and generally has three doors, the curtains of which are lowered while Mass is being celebrated. The chancel is flanked by the Prothesis, where the bread and wine for the Eucharist are prepared, and by the Diakonikon, or vestry.

In St. Theodore one can also notice the influence of the East on Byzantine art, which was prominent in the period from the mid-9th to mid-11th centuries, when Byzantine artists used a variety of Oriental motifs in their designs. It is probable that the design of pseudo-kufic characters (the script perfected during the 7th century by calligraphers in the city of Kafa, in present-day Iraq) that decorate the terracotta panel below the windows of the facade was inspired by the work of Arab craftsmen.

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The Acropolis – Athens, Goddess Athena

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Archaeologists tell us that the original city of Athens was situated on the Acropolis. Even in classical times, the Athenians still referred to this area as “the City.” The city of Athens and its patron goddess emerge into the light of history as inseparably coupled. In Mycenaean times each city was built around a central palace, and each palace was under the protection of its patron goddess. Athena was the goddess of the palace on the Acropolis. The names of the city and its goddess are essentially the same: Athena was Athens, and Athens was Athena. She was “The Athenian.” The ancient Athenians seem to have exhibited, during much of their history, precisely those virtues which they traditionally attributed to her. This may be because, when the Athenians imagined their goddess, they did so in their own image.

According to the myth, Zeus fell in love with a beautiful titaness, Metis (“Cunning Intelligence”). Although she repeatedly changed her shape to avoid his unwelcome attentions, as was his way, he persisted. In the end he caught up with her and raped her.

An oracle then announced that Metis would bear Zeus two children: first a daughter then, a son, and the son would be mightier than his father. Just as Zeus had once overthrown and dispossessed his own father, Chronos, so he was destined in his turn, to be overthrown by his own son. In a desperate attempt to avoid sharing his father’s fate, Zeus gave Metis a potion of drugged ambrosia, and then swallowed her whole.

Some time afterwards a terrible headache came upon him. In great pain, he sought the advice of Hermes, whose only suggestion was that Hephaestos, the smith of the gods, should open his head in order to allow the cause of his pain to escape. Zeus was so desperate that even this drastic remedy was preferable to doing nothing, and Hephaestos was duly summoned to cleave open Zeus’ head with his mighty axe. When he did so, to the astonishment of all the immortals, Athena sprang out with a great war-cry, fully-formed, wearing armour and bearing arms.

Zeus’ daughter not only became the patron of many arts at that time normally considered masculine preserves, such as ceramics, she was also credited with a distinctly unfeminine warlike nature. When the Olympian gods were faced with a titanic struggle against the giants, Athena played a major role in the war, defeating the giant Enkelados in single combat. She came to be depicted not merely as a virgin goddess, but, as an ancient Roman writer put it, as a virago: as a female capable of playing a leading role in a world dominated by men.

It came to be said that the reason for the birth of this goddess lay in a wager between Zeus and his consort, Hera, as to which of them could generate the better progeny entirely alone and unaided. By herself, Hera managed to produce only the crippled god, Hephaestos and a monster; while Zeus was able to bring forth, in Athena, one of the greatest of the Immortals.

This seems to have been a picturesque reference to a widespread belief, which was to appear later in the works of the philosopher Aristotle: that the father alone is responsible for generating his children, and for providing them with their inherited characteristics, and that their mother affords them nothing more than a temporary shelter and sustenance in her womb during her pregnancy.

This is a striking example of the strong climate of male chauvinism which dominated the early classical period in ancient Greece, which is very evident in myth and legend.

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Ancient History – Athens

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Archaeologists have found evidence that Athens has been inhabited from at least the fifth millennium BC. The site would have been attractive to early settlers for a number of reasons: its location in the midst of productive agricultural terrain; its closeness to the coast and the natural safe harbour of Piraeus; the existence of defensible high ground, the Acropolis (from akron and polis, or ‘city on the high ground’); and the proximity of a natural source of water on the north-west side of the Acropolis.

Traces of Mycenaean fortifications from the thirteenth century AC can still be seen on the Acropolis, including some foundations belonging to what must have been a palatial structure. The fortifications, known as the ‘Pelasgian’ walls (after the indigenous people believed to have built them before the arrival of the Greeks around 2000 BC), remained in use until the Persian Wars of 490-480 BC. One stretch behind the temple of Athena Nike appears to have been deliberately preserved in the Classical period.

There was a decline of Mycenaean society across the Greek world around the end of the twelfth century BC. Whether this was directly connected with the Trojan War (around 1184 BC), or the so-called Dorian Invasion thought to have taken place soon after this conflict, Athens does not appear to have succumbed to an attack. The Mycenaean royal family of Pylos is said to have taken refuge in Athens after their city’s fall to the Dorians. One of its members, Codros, became king of his adoptive city.

The collapse of Mycenaean civilization left Greece in political, economic and social decline, accompanied by loss of artistic skills, literacy and trade networks. The Mycenaean form of writing, known as Linear B, was completely forgotten, and the Greek alphabet did not emerge until the late eighth century BC as the new form of writing. At this time city states began to emerge throughout the Greek world, governed by oligarchies, or aristocratic councils. Thirteen kings ruled in Athens after Codros, until in 753 BC they were replaced by officials with a ten-year term, known as decennial archons, and in 683 BC by annually appointed eponymous archons.

Conflict between the oligarchs and the lower classes, many of whom had been reduced to slavery, led to a series of reforms that paved the way for the emergence of the world’s first true democracy. Around 620 BC the lawmaker Dracon set up wooden tablets on the Acropolis known as axones. These were inscribed with civil laws and punishments so harsh that the death penalty was prescribed even for minor crimes, giving rise to the term `draconian’ which is still used today. Dracon’s intervention did little to ensure order, prompting representatives of the nobles and lower classes in 594 BC to appoint the statesman and poet Solon as archon.

Solon terminated aristocratic rule, setting up a representational government where participation was determined not by lineage or bloodline, but wealth. He eliminated slavery based on debt, and restituted freedom and land to those who had been enslaved. Solon created a `Council of Four Hundred’ from equal numbers of representatives of the Ionian tribes to which the Athenians claimed to belong, and instituted four classes of citizenry.

Peisistratos, Solon’s younger cousin, became tyrant (tyrannos) of Athens in 545 BC. He ensured the Solonian constitution was respected and governed benevolently. After Peisistratos’ death, however, things took a negative turn and anti-Peisistratid sentiment grew. By 510 BC King Cleomenes of Sparta was asked to assist in deposing Peisistratos’ son Hippias. Hippias sought refuge in Persia at the court of King Darius.

Soon after, the aristocrat Cleisthenes promised to institute further reforms giving a more direct role to citizens in government. His reforms were passed in 508 BC, and democracy was established in Athens. A new `Council of Five Hundred’ (the Boule) replaced the ‘Council of Four Hundred’, with equal representation from the various tribes. Cleisthenes is also credited with instituting the system of ostracism, which ‘voted’ an individual considered dangerous to democracy into exile for ten years.

It is uncertain when the former Mycenaean citadel was transformed into a sacred precinct but by the late eighth century BC a modest temple (or perhaps more than one) stood on the plateau. The oldest and holiest cult image on the Acropolis was the statue of Athena Polias (Protectress of the City), a crude olive-wood figure, so old that Athenians of the Classical period believed it had either fallen from heaven or been made by Cecrops or Erichthonios. This sacred image of Athena was ritually ‘dressed’ every year in a peplos, a sacred robe, as part of the Panathenaic festival.

A temple is thought to have been built around 700 BC to the south of the later, Classical Erechtheion, to house the statue of Athena Polias. The first major building of which there are significant remains on the Acropolis was the so-called ‘Bluebeard Temple’, built in the Archaic period around 560 BC. The ‘Bluebeard Temple’ is thought by some to have stood to the south of the later Erechtheion. Ancient texts mention a mysterious building or precinct contemporary to the ‘Bluebeard Temple’, called the Hecatompedon, or ‘Hundred-footer’. Whatever this structure or place was, it gave its name to the principal room of the Classical Parthenon, perhaps because the later building occupies the same site.

With the expulsion of Hippias a new temple was built on the Acropolis, its foundations still visible to the south of the later Erechtheion. This building, the Archaios Naos, or ‘ancient temple’, is likely to have been deliberately commissioned around 506 BC as a replacement for the ‘Bluebeard Temple’.

The first Persian invasion of 490 BC saw the victory of the Athenians at the battle of Marathon against the forces of King Darius of Persia. The following year the elated Athenians leveled an area on the south side of the Acropolis and began construction of the Old Parthenon. A new gateway to the Acropolis was also commenced, known as the Old Propylaia.

This post-Marathonian building program on the Acropolis came to a violent end in 480 BC when Xerxes, son of King Darius, led a second Persian invasion of Greece. Athens had to be evacuated and Xerxes razed the city and buildings on the Acropolis. Under the command of Themistocles, the Athenians destroyed the Persian fleet in the battle of Salamis. Victory over the Persians was ensured after the battle of Plataea (479 BC), to the northwest of Athens, when a combined Greek army annihilated the Persians.

In the aftermath of the battle of Plataea, a vow was made by the victors never to rebuild the shrines that were destroyed in the war, preserving them instead as memorials for later generations.

Pericles, who was a general and statesman, came to power in Athens around 461 BC. He considered the oath of Plataea to have been fulfilled, as thirty years had elapsed from the Persian invasion, and proceeded to reconstruct the temples on the Acropolis. He gathered together the best architects and artists in the city and plans were drawn up to erect new buildings that would outshine those torn down by the Persians. The Periclean building programme enhanced the lower city with new monuments, such as the Temple of Hephaestus, also known as the Theseion, and the Painted Stoa or Poikile situated near the Agora (marketplace).

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